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100 Significant Papers

The 100 articles reproduced here have been chosen on the basis of their subsequent importance to lighting. Articles were considered from the Society's technical publications dating from February 1906 to January 2004. A searchable version of the complete index of Society publications, some 950 pages, was produced. With its aid, papers were found, categorized, and considered by an interdisciplinary group of reviewers with expertise covering the following areas:

General | Application | Calculations | Color | Controls and Economics | Daylighting | Glare | Human Factors | Light Sources | Luminaires and Optics | Measurements and Photometry | Non-Visual Effects | Roadway Lighting | Vision |


This category defined articles of general interest and broad topic. Two papers were placed in this category, both from the earliest years of the Society.

Feb 1906 — L.B. Marks, Inaugural Address of President L. B. Marks

Jan 1907 — Charles Steinmetz, Light And Illumination


Examples of lighting design and engineering have been a prominent part of the Society's publication. Nine papers were selected from this category, published between 1907 and 1974, covering specific projects as well as general lighting applications issues such as equipment maintenance and psychological design factors.

Jul 1907 — C.E. Knox, Illumination of The Engineering Societies Building, New York

Mar 1911 — Clarence L. Law, Albert Jackson Marshall, The Lighting of A Large Store

Jan 1924 — Earl A. Anderson, James M. Ketch, Depreciation of Lighting Equipment Due to Dust and Dirt

Feb 1924 — M. Luckiesh, A.H. Taylor, Colored Lighting

May 1934 — Junius D. Edwards, Aluminum for Reflectors

Aug 1949 — Parry Moon, Domina Eberle Spencer, Luminous-Ceiling Lighting

Mar 1963 — Francis Clark, Accurate Maintenance Factors

Jan 1966 — Francis Clark, Accurate Maintenance Factors- Part Two (Luminaire Dirt Depreciation)

Apr 1974 — Lyle H. Taylor, Eugene W. Socov, The Movement of People Toward Lights


The history of this application engineering aspect of lighting is described in the ten papers selected from this category. They were published between 1907 and 1996, covering the earliest graphical techniques up to the application of computer programs.

Jul 1907 — Clayton H. Sharp, The Concepts and Terminology of Illuminating Engineering

Oct 1908 — J.R. Cravath, V.R. Lansingh, The Calculation of Illumination By The Flux of Light Method

Jun 1910 — Edward B. Rosa, Photometric Units and Nomenclature

Mar 1920 — Ward Harrison, Earl A. Anderson, Coefficients of Utilization

Mar 1946 — Kiyosi Hisano, Light Flux Distribution in a Rectangular Parallelepiped and its Simplifying Scale

Dec 1951 — J.R. Jones, John J. Neidhart, Coefficients of Utilization for Luminaires with Concentrating Distributions

Mar 1958 — Philip F. O’Brien, Interreflections in Asymmetrical Rooms

Feb 1959 — B.F. Jones, J.R. Jones, A Versatile Method of Calculating Illumination and Brightness

Jan 1975 — David L. DiLaura, On the Computation of Equivalent Sphere Illumination

Smr 1996 — David L. DiLaura, Nondiffuse Radiative Transfer 2: Planar Area Sources and Receivers

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Six papers published between 1928 and 1969 were selected from this category and cover the early work on chromaticity, color rendering and flattery index, and psychological aspects of color.

Mar 1928 — Norman MacBeth, Color Temperature Classification of Natural and Artificial Illuminants

Mar 1941 — Dorothy Nickerson, The Illuminant in Color Matching and Discrimination

May 1953 — Charles W. Jerome, Deane B. Judd, Specification of Color-Rendering Properties of Fluorescent Lamps

Feb 1958 — Dorothy Nickerson, Measurement and Specification of Color Rendition Properties of Light Sources

Oct 1967 — Deanne B. Judd, A Flattery Index for Artificial Illuminants

May 1969 — Faber Birren, Psychological Implications of Color and Illumination

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Controls and Economics

The five articles from this category were published between 1936 and 1976. They cover the control systems—switching and dimming—that were developed for each of the modern light sources as they became commercially available and the need to control them arose.

Jan 1936 — S.R. McCandless, Fred M. Wolff, Electrical Control for Varying Lighting Intensities

May 1952 — A.C. Barr, C.L. Amick, Fundamentals of Lighting Cost Analysis

Jan 1954 — J.H. Campbell, H.E. Schutz, W.H. Abbott, Dimming Hot Cathode Fluorescent Lamps

Apr 1963 — E.E. Von Zastrow, Fluorescent Lamp Dimming with Semiconductors

Oct 1976 — T.K. McGowan, G.E. Feiker, A New Approach to Lighting System Control

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The seven articles in this category cover the period from 1914 to 1993 and describe daylight availability measurements, development of daylight calculation methods, and the analysis of the energy saving potential of daylighting.

Jan 1914 — L.B. Marks, J.E. Woodwell, Planning for Daylight and Sunlight: Buildings

May 1923 — H.H. Kimball, Daylight Illumination on Horizontal, Vertical and Sloping Surfaces

Apr 1940 — E. Elvegard, G. Sjostedt, The Calculation of Illumination from Sun and Sky

Jan 1953 — R.L. Biesele, Jr., W.J. Arner, E.W. Conover, A Lumen Method of Daylighting Design

Jul 1977 — Joseph B. Murdoch, A Procedure for Calculating the Potential Savings in Lighting Energy from the Use of Skylights

Jul 1984 — Gary Gillette, William Pierpoint, Stephen Treado, A General Illuminance Model for Daylighting Availability

Wtr 1993 — R. Perez, R. Seals, J. Michalsky, Modeling Skylight Angular Luminance Distribution from Routine Irradiance Measurements

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These seven articles trace the development from 1925 to 1966 of the Visual Comfort Probability System, and some of its precursors, and one of its simplifications.

Mar 1925 — M. Luckiesh, L.L. Holladay, Glare and Visibility

Sep 1945 — Ward Harrison, Glare Ratings

Nov 1949 — Matthew Luckiesh, Sylvester K. Guth, Brightnesses in Visual Field at Borderline Between Comfort and Discomfort (BCD)

Jan 1955 — Glenn A. Fry, Mathew Alpern, Effect of a Peripheral Glare Source Upon the Apparent Brightness of an Object

Jun 1957 — R.G. Hopkinson, Evaluation of Glare

Jun 1965 — C.L. Crouch, Derivation, Background and Use of the ‘Scissors Curve’

Oct 1966 — Sylvester K. Guth, Computing Visual Comfort Ratings for a Specific Interior Lighting Installation



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Human Factors

These four articles were published between 1968 and 1990 and cover some of the early work in the application of psychophysics preference and performance of occupants under different lighting systems.

Jan 1968 — Sylvester K. Guth, John F. McNelis, Visual Performance: A Comparison in Terms of Detection of Presence and Discrimination of Detail

Oct 1973 — John E. Flynn, Terry J. Spencer, Osyp Martyniuk, Clyde Hendrick, Interim Study of Procedures for Investigating the Effect of Light on Impression and Behavior

Jan 1979 — John E. Flynn, Terry Spencer, Osyp Martyniuk, Clyde Hendrick, A Guide to Methodology Procedures for Measuring Subjective Impressions in lighting

Smr 1990 — Belinda L. Collins, Will Fisher, Gary Gillette, Robert W. Marans, Second-Level Post-Occupancy Evaluation Analysis



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Light Sources

The 14 papers in this category cover the long span of 1914 to 1997. Incandescent, tungsten-halogen, fluorescent, HID, and LED sources are described. In some cases, the articles announce and describe ground-breaking developments.

Jan 1914 — Roscoe Scott, The Evolution of the Lamp

Jun 1936 — J.A. St. Louis, Characteristics of 400-Watt and 250-Watt Type H Mercury Lamps

Jan 1939 — G.E. Inman, Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamps

Nov 1952 — A.E. Lemmers, W.W. Brooks, New Fluorescent Lamp and Ballast Design For Rapid Starting

Dec 1959 — E.G. Zubler, F.A. Mosby, An Iodine Incandescent Lamp with Virtually 100 Percent Lumen Maintenance

May 1963 — E.M. Beesley, A. Makulec, H.H. Schroeder, Lamps with Multilayer Interference-Film Reflectors

Feb 1965 — J.F. Waymouth, W.C. Gungle, J.M. Harris, F. Koury, A New Metal Halide Arc Lamp

Apr 1965 — David D. Van Horn, Mathematical and Physical Bases for Incandescent Lamp Exponents

Dec 1965 — W.C. Louden, K. Schmidt, High-Pressure Sodium Discharge Arc Lamps

Oct 1973 — W.A. Thornton, Fluorescent Lamps with High Color-Discrimination Capability

Jul 1982 — A. Bouwknegt, Compact Fluorescent lamps

Smr 1991 — R.S. Bergman, Halogen-IR Lamp Development: A System Approach

Wtr 1997 — S. Carleton, P.A. Seinen, J. Stoffels, Metal Halide Lamps with Ceramic Envelopes: A Breakthrough in Color Control

Wtr 1997 — I. Lewin, J. Corbin, M. Janoff, The Application of Light Emitting Diodes to Traffic Signals



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Luminaires and Optics

Between 1907 and 1977 four important articles were published that described advances in light control and luminaire design, driven by the desire to reduce discomfort glare or improve visual task contrast and performance.

Mar 1902 — Van Rensselaer Lansingh, Prismatic Globes and Reflectors

Oct 1970 — I. Lewin, J.W. Griffith, Veiling Reflection Control By Candlepower Distribution

Apr 1973 — Ian Lewin, New Concepts in Direct Glare Control

Jul 1977 — G.A. Baker, R.V. Heinisch, I. Lewin, New Techniques for Reflector Design and Photometry



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Measurements and Photometry

These 13 articles were published between 1910 and 1990 and describe the development of the v-lambda function, the advent of physical photometry with photovoltaic cells, and advances in photometry for large sources.

Nov 1910 — Herbert E. Ives, Some Spectral Luminosity Curves Obtained By Flicker And Equality Of Brightness Photometers

Mar 1923 — C.C. Colby Jr., C.M. Doolittle, A Distribution Photometer Of New Design

Jun 1935 — C.L. Dows, G.R. Baumgartner, Two Photo-voltaic Cell Photometers for Measurement of Light Distribution

Sep 1936 — Marlin E. Fogle, New Color Corrected Photronic Cells for Accurate Light Measurements

Apr 1950 — Matthew Luckiesh, A.A. Eastman, S.K. Guth, A New Scale of Relative Footcandles for the Luckiesh -Moss Visibility Meter

Dec 1957 — Charles A. Douglas, Computation of the Effective Intensity of Flashing Lights

Nov 1968 — I. Lewin, W.B. Bell, Luminance Measurement by Photographic Photometry

Sep 1982 — Robert E. Levin, The Photometric Connection - Part I

Oct 1982 — Robert E. Levin, The Photometric Connection - Part II

Nov 1982 — Robert E. Levin, The Photometric Connection - Part III

Dec 1982 — Robert E. Levin, The Photometric connection - Part IV

Smr 1987 — P.Y. Ngai, On Near-Field Photometry

Wtr 1990 — Steve Stannard, John Brass, Application Distance Photometry



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Non-Visual Effects

These two articles appeared in 1968 and 1971 and deal with biological effects of light.

Oct 1968 — Richard J. Wurtman, Biological Implications of Artificial Illumination

Apr 1971 — Luke Thorington, L. Cunningham, J. Parascandola, The Illuminant in the Prevention and Phototherapy of Hyperbilirubinemia



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Roadway Lighting

Light distribution and roadway visibility are treated in these six articles that appeared between 1955 and 1975.

Dec 1955 — Charles Rex, Luminaire Light Distribution Principles

Mar 1957 — D. M. Finch, Some Factors Influencing the Night Visibility of Roadway Obstacles

Jan 1959 — W.M. Waldbauer, Highway Lighting Without Glare - A New Lighting Technique

Apr 1961 — Arthur W. Fowle, Richard L. Kaercher, Roadway Brightness and Illumination As Related to Luminaire Distributions

May 1962 — J.M. Waldram, Visual Problems in Streets and Motorways

Oct 1975 — Merle E. Keck, Herbe A. Odle, A Field Evaluation of Pavement Luminance and Glaremark



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The 14 articles in this category describe various important effects and applications of vision research on lighting practice between 1910 and 1999.

Feb 1910 — Herbert E. Ives, Luminous Efficiency

Nov 1928 — Percy W. Cobb, Frank K. Moss, Glare And The Four Fundamental Factors In Vision

Jan 1930 — M. Luckiesh, F.K. Moss, The New Science Of Seeing

Nov 1952 — H. Richard Blackwell, Brightness Discrimination Data for The Specification of Quantity of Illumination

Apr 1957 — R.G. Hopkinson, Assessment of Brightness

Jun 1959 — H. Richard Blackwell, Development and Use of a Quantitative Method for Specification of Interior Illumination Levels on the Basis of Performance Data

Aug 1963 — Robert M. Boynton, Norma D. Miller, Visual Performance Under Conditions of Transient Adaptation

Apr 1970 — H. Richard Blackwell, Measurement of the Contrast Rendition Factor For Pencil Handwritten Tasks

Apr 1971 — Robert M. Boynton, Daniel E. Boss, The Effect of Background Luminance and Contrast Upon Visual Search Performance

Oct 1971 — O. Mortenson Blackwell, H. Richard Blackwell, Visual Performance Data for 156 Normal Observers of Various Ages

Jul 1976 — Stanley W. Smith, Performance of Complex Tasks under Different Levels of Illumination

Smr 1986 & Wtr 1987 — Mark S. Rea, Toward a Model of Visual Performance: Foundations and Data

Wtr 1987 — S.M. Berman, D.L. Jewett, L.R. Bingham, R.M. Nahass, F. Perry, G. Fein, Pupillary Size Differences under Incandescent and High Pressure Sodium Lamps

Wtr 1999 — Alan L. Lewis, Visual Performance as a Function of Spectral Power Distribution of Light Sources at Luminances Used for General Outdoor Lighting



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